In this part you will be dealing with conjunctions. They are used to combine two sentences into one — a compound sentence. Some conjunctions have an adverbial usage, but here you will encounter them as they are used in everyday language: as words that combine two phrases or sentences into one.
- If the combined sentences each have a subject and a verb, separate the sentences with a comma:
John is a doctor, and Mary is a lawyer.
John is a doctor and works in Chicago.
- If the combined sentences begin with a conjunction, separate them with a comma:
If you work hard, you can have a good life.
When using however or therefore, you should separate the combined sentences with a semicolon:
His hands were tied; however, he continued to struggle to get free.
There’s a storm coming; therefore we have to stay alert.
The use of the comma is optional when the two parts of the sentence are related or are linked by meaning:
Alicia is smart, but she hates to study.
Alicia is smart but she hates to study.
- Following are some commonly used conjunctions:
- Look at the following examples:
There was nothing the doctor could do; therefore he left.
Anna is a smart girl, but she just doesn’t like studying.
Because she became ill, Maria couldn’t go to the party.
Interrogative pronouns, which ask a question, can also be used as conjunctions. They are not true conjunctions, but they can still be used to combine two sentences into one.
- These are interrogative pronouns:
- Look at these examples:
I don’t know why you have to go so early.
Can you tell me how I can find Green Street?
When John came into the room, she began to blush.
Exercise 1 Choose the appropriate conjunction from the two given, andrewrite the two sentences as one.
- We went to bed early. (if, because) It was such a tiring day.
- Can you tell me? (and, where) John is working.
- Monday is the first day of classes. (and, why) I still have to buy some books.
- Juan is my only brother. (therefore, but) I haven’t seen him in a year.
- The weather is terrible today. (however, when) The parade went on as planned.
- She started crying. (if, when) I told her I love her.
- I don’t understand. (since, how) You can live in the city.
- The soldiers let out a cheer. (for, where) The war had finally ended.
- Tom will help you. (if, since) You pay him a few dollars.
- We didn’t know. (therefore, where) She was hiding.
- Let me know. (however, when) You will be home.
- It’s been a long time. (since, if) I last saw you.
- Do your very best. (if, but) Be careful.
- She suddenly understood. (where, but) Father got the money.
- It’s difficult to understand. (why, what) We should help you.
Exercise 2 Complete the following sentences with any appropriate phrase.
- The children remained in the garden and _____________________.
- In summer it’s terribly hot, but _____________________.
- Juan hates mathematics because _____________________.
- Helena decided to stay home, for _____________________.
- They all stayed inside their tents because _____________________.
- We have no more money; therefore_____________________.
- I’m very disappointed; however, _____________________.
- Martin will lend us some money if _____________________.
- Do you know why _____________________?
- I think I can tell you what _____________________.