1. TENSES (Thì)
A. THE PAST SIMPLE (Thì quá khứ đơn)
Thì quá khứ đơn được dùng để diễn đạt:
– Hành động đã xảy ra tại một thời điểm cụ thể trong quá khứ hoặc hành động đã xảy ra suốt một quãng thời gian trong quá khứ, nhưng nay đã hoàn toàn chấm dứt.
Ex: He flew to New York two days ago.
She lived in Paris for ten years (now she lives in London)
Thường được dùng với các từ và cụm từ chỉ thời gian quá khứ: yesterday, last night, last week/month/ year…, last summer; three days ago, in 1989.
Hai hoặc nhiều hành động xảy ra liên tiếp nhau trong quá khứ
Ex: As soon as he saw me, he waved.
He got up, paid the bill and left.
– Nhận thức, cảm giác, thói quen hoặc hành động xảy ra thường xuyên trong quá khứ.
Ex: We really liked the film.
We usually spent the winter at Aunt meg’s house.
B. THE PRESENT PERFECT (Thì hiện tại hoàn thành)
Thì hiện tại hoàn thành được dùng để diễn đạt:
– Hành động vừa mới xảy ra.
Ex: Karen has just passed her exams.
Have you met Ann recently?
– Hành động đã xảy ra trong quá khứ khi chúng ta không biết rõ thời gian hoặc không muốn đề cập tới thời gian (dùng quá khứ đơn khi đề cập đến thời gian cụ thể).
Ex: I have visited Hanoi.
I visited Hanoi last month.
– Hành động đến nay đã xảy ra vài lần.
Ex: Daisy has read that novel three times.
– Hành động đã xảy ra nhưng có kết quả hoặc ảnh hưởng ở hiện tại.
Ex: I can’t walk because I have hurt my leg.
– Hành động bắt đầu trong quá khứ, kéo dài đến hiện tại và có khả năng tiếp tục ở tương lai (dùng thì quá khứ đơn nếu hành động xảy ra và đã chấm dứt).
Ex: We have worked in the factory for six years.
→ hiện vẫn còn làm việc ở đó.
We worked in the factory for three years.
→ hiện không còn làm việc ở đó nữa.
Các từ và cụm từ thường được dùng với thì hiện tại hoàn thành: just, recently, before, ever, never, already, yet, since, for, so far, until now, up to now, up to the present, this/that/it is the first/second…. time
– For + khoảng thời gian:/ơr six days, for three weeks, for a long time, for ages.
Since + mốc thời gian: since 1986, since Monday, since last year, since Christmas.
Bài tập áp dụng:
I. Put the verb in the correct form, present simple or present progressive.
1. A: What __________ (you/do)?
B: I (write) to my parents. I __________ (write) to them every weekend.
2. A: Look, it __________ (snow).
B: Its beautiful! This is the first time I’ve ever seen snow. It __________ (not snow) in my country.
3. A: Oh, that’s Adrian. He’s new here.
B: Really? Where __________ (he/live)? __________ (you/know)?
A: Yes. He __________ (live) in Milan, but now he __________ (stay) with his aunt on Shirley Road.
4. A: What time __________ (you/usually/ finish) work?
B: Normally I __________ (finish) work at five o’clock, but this week I __________ (work) until six to earn a bit more money.
5. A: How __________ (you/ travel) to work?
B: I haven’t got a car at the moment, so I __________ (go) to work on the bus this week. Usually I __________ (drive) to work.
6. A: I think we’re going the wrong way.
B: I don’t think so. The sun __________ (rise) in the east, remember. It’s behind us, so we __________ (travel) west.
7. A: __________ (you/look) for someone?
B: Yes, I __________ (need) to speak to Neil. Is he in?
A: Yes, but I __________ (think) he’s busy. He __________ (talk) to the boss at the moment.
8. A: I __________ (want) a new computer. I __________ (save) up to buy one.
B: But computers __________ (cost) so much money, what’s wrong with the one we’ve got?
A: It __________ (get) out of date now.
9. A: Your new dress __________ (look) very nice.
B: Thank you. The trouble is it __________ (not/ fit) properly. I __________ (not/ know) why I bought them, really.
10. A: What __________ (you/ do)?
B: I __________ (taste) the sauce. It __________ (taste) too salty.
II. Put the verbs into the suitable form, the present perfect or the present perfect progressive.
1. A: How long __________ (you/ study) English?
B: I __________ (learn) English since I was twelve.
2. A: Are you waiting for someone?
B: Yes, I __________ (wait) for two hours, but my friend __________ (not come) yet
3. A: I __________ (lose) my address book __________ (you/ see) it anywhere?
B: Yes, I __________ (just/see) it on the bookshelf.
4. A: You look tired __________ (you/ work) so hard?
B: Yes. I __________ (study) for four hours and probably won’t finish until midnight.
5. A: __________ (you/ see) Mark recently?
B: No, I __________ (not/ see) him since Christmas, I wonder where he __________ (live) since then.
6. A: I feel very tired.
B: It’s because you __________ (do) too much.
A: Well, at least I __________ (finish) that report now, and I can relax.
7. A: Someone __________ (leave) the ladder outside, look.
B: I expect that’s Mike. He __________ (clean) the windows. I don’t think he __________ (finish) yet.
8. A: You’ve got mud on your shoes.
B: It’s all right, I’ll take them off. I __________ (work) in the garden.
A: Yes, it looks a lot tidier. Well done. You __________ (do) a good job.
9. A: I __________ (hear) that you and Harriet are building a garage. How long __________ (you/do) that?
B: Oh, for about a month now. We __________ (do) about half of it.
10. A: You’re still reading that book, aren’t you? How long __________ (you/ read) it?
B: I __________ (read) it for three days, but I (not/ finish) it yet.
III. Supply the correct verb form: Present tenses.
1. Listen! I __________ (think) someone __________ (knock) at the door.
2. We __________ (not/ know) why Sarah is upset, but she __________ (not/ speak) to us for a ages.
3. The earth __________ (circle) the sun once every 365 days.
4. Why __________ (you/ stare) at me? I suppose you __________ (not/ see) a woman on a motorbike before!
5. How many times __________ (you/ see) him since he went to Edinburgh?
6. Trevor and Laura like Scrabble. They __________ (play) it most evenings.
7. The number of vehicles on the road __________ (increase).
8. “Sorry I’m late”. “That’s all right. I __________ (not/ wait) long”.
9. Mrs. Green always __________ (go) to work by car, but this week she__________ (travel) by bus.
10. We __________ (be) from French. We __________ (be) there for 20 years.
11. These flowers are dying. You __________ (not/ water) them for ages.
12. Mai __________ (lose) her keys, so she can’t get into the house.
13. I’m afraid I __________ (not/ finish) typing those letters yet. I __________ (deal) with customers all morning.
14. A: What __________ (your father/ do)?
B: He __________ (be) an architect but he (not/ work) at the moment.
15. A: __________ (you/ ever/ see) a lion?
B: Yes, I __________ (see) it since I was a child.
IV. Put the verbs into the correct form, past progressive or past simple.
1. When Martin __________ (arrive) home, Ann __________ (talk) to someone on the phone.
2. It __________ (be) cold when we __________ (leave) the house that day, and a light snow __________ (fall).
3. I __________ (call) Roger at nine last night, but he __________ (not/ be) at home. He __________ (study) at the library.
4. I __________ (see) Sue in town yesterday but she __________ (not/ see) me. She __________ (look) the other way.
5. When I __________ (open) the cupboard door, a pile of books __________ (fall) out.
6. A: How __________ (you/ break) your arm?
B: I (slip) on the ice while I __________ (cross) the street in front of the dorm.
7. A: What __________ (you/ do) this time yesterday?
B: We __________ (drive) to London, but on the way we __________ (hear) about a bomb scare in Oxford Street. So we (drive) back home straightaway.
8. I __________ (meet) Tom and Ann at the airport a few weeks ago. They __________ (go) to Berlin and I __________ (go) to Madrid. We __________ (have) a chat while we __________ (wait) for our flights.
V. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form, past simple or present perfect.
1. I __________ (have) this shirt for nearly four years.
2. Joanna __________ (tidy) her desk, but now it’s in a mess again.
3. Mike __________ (lose) his key. He can’t find it anywhere.
4. The last time I __________ (go) to Brighton was in August.
5. I __________ (finish) my homework. I __________ (do) it before tea.
6. And the race is over! And Mickey Simpson __________ (win) in a record time!
7. Martin __________ (be) to Greek five times. He loves the place.
8. Of course I can ride a bike. But I __________ (not/ ride) one for years.
9. I don’t know Carol’s husband. I __________ (never/ meet) him.
10. Rupert __________ (leave) a message for you. He (ring) last night.
11. Your car looks very clean __________ (you/ wash) it?
12. We __________ (move) here in 1993. We __________ (be) here a long time now.
13. Mr. Clack __________ (work) in a bank for 15 years. Then he gave it up.
14. Is this the first time you __________ (cook) pasta?
15. I __________ (work) for a computer company since I __________ (graduate) from university.
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